Saturday, 25 October 2014

Temperature Sensor

 This project uses IC LM35 as a sensor for detecting accurate centigrade temperature. Linearity defines how well over a range of temperature a sensor’s output consistently changes. Unlike thermistor, Linearity of a precision IC Sensors are very good of 0.5°C accuracy and has wide temperature range. its output voltage is linearly proportional to the Celsius (Centigrade) temperature.
The LM35 is rated to operate over a -55° to +150°C temperature range.It draws only 60 µA from its supply, it has very low self-heating, less than 0.1°C in still air. LM35 Operates from 4 to 30 volts.
Output of IC is 10mv/degree centigrade for eg if the output of sensor is 280 mV then temperature is 28 degree C. so by using a Digital multimeter we can easily calculate the degree temperature. For trigger point you should set the voltage of pin 2 of IC 741 by using preset or potentiometer.
Our aim of this project is not to construct a thermometer but to activate or deactivate a device at a particular margin temperature. For simplicity we have used 2 LED for indication  of both low (Green) and high (Red) temperature.
Temperature Sensor Circuit
                                                      Circuit Diagram of temperature sensor
Working: The output of IC2 increases in proportion to the temperature by 10 mV per degree. This varying voltage is feed to a comparator IC 741 (OP Amplifier). OP Amplifier are among the most widely used electronic devices today.The op-amp is one type of differential amplifier. It has two input inverting (-) and non-inverting (+) and one output pin. We have used IC741 as non-inverting amplifier which means pin 3 is the input and the output is not reversed. This circuit amplifies the difference between its input terminals.
As a comparator, Bistable output of an op amplifier is as follows :-

Part list:
IC LM35, IC LM741
Resistance: 10K Ohms, 470 Ohms X 2Pcs
Preset or P.O.T of 2K Ohms
LED 2pcs (Red and Green)
9V Battery with Snap
Switch, wire